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Airway Distance
The actual (as opposed to straight line) distance flown by the aircraft between two points, after deviations required by air traffic control and navigation along republished routes. The difference between this and straight line distance will vary throughout the country. Average figures would be between 5-9%.

ARO
Airport Reservation Office. Staffed by the FAA, this entity allocates landing and takeoff reservations for unscheduled aircraft in and out of the following airports: JFK, LGA, EWR, DCA, ORD (see airport identifier listings for codes). Since these allocations are scarce and granted 48 hours in advance on a "first-come first served" basis, travel to these five airports may be difficult by charter.

Block Rates
A lower "contract rate" for scheduling significant amounts of charter time in advance on a prearranged agreement.

Block Speed
The average speed over a specific distance "block-to block", or door-to-door with respect to the airport gate.

Certificate
FAA-issued license (in this context sometimes referred to as ticket, Part 135 license, etc.) to carry passengers for hire.

Charter Broker
A company or individual that buys charter at wholesale and resells it at retail. The broker is responsible for payment to the charter provider, for assessing end-user taxes and fees, and for ensuring their customer's safety and satisfaction. A charter operator also frequently acts as a broker to provide supplemental lift to their customer.

Commuter Operator
A regional, scheduled airline. In this book limited to that operator with adequate fleet capacity as to be available of charter. Not all commuter airlines charter, because of the limitations of aircraft and crew availability.

Corporate Operator
A company flight department which has earned a "Part 135" certificate to carry passengers for compensation.

Cruise Speed
Cruise speed is the normal speed attained at altitude once the aircraft is no longer climbing and is en route.

D-085
Page 85, Section D, of an operator's federally mandated Operations Manual. This certified page lists all aircraft that the operator may legally offer for charter.

Deadhead
Originally a noun, now a verb meaning to fly the return leg of a trip without cargo or passengers. Originally coined during the infancy of the major airlines, the term was pejoratively applied to company employees or spouses, who were strapped into otherwise empty seats to give the appearance of high business volume.

Duty Time
That portion of the day when a crew member is on duty in any capacity (not just in the air). This can be a constraint on long day-trips, as there are FAA-imposed limits on the amount of time allowed on duty. Many charter operators have stricter rules, so it pays to inquire before planning a trip too tight to the limit.

Empty Leg
Since charter trips typically charge for the round trip travel of the aircraft, empty legs can often represent relative bargains or, if sold, provide a discounted final invoice to the person who purchased the original charter that created the empty leg that was later sold to a different retail customer.

FBO
Fixed base operator, which represents a large majority of the air charter industry. By definition at a permanent location, this is a vendor of services, maintenance, fuel, flight instruction, and aircraft sales, in addition to charter.

Fleet Manager
A commercial aviation entity developed to subcontract the maintenance and operation of corporate aircraft, which are often chartered out to the general public.

Flight Time
That portion of the trip actually spent in the air. For billing purposes this definition is generally strict and only applies from moment of liftoff to moment of touchdown.

GADO
General Aviation District Office of the FAA is the most local branch of the FAA, also the entity most likely to know the specific history of a charter operator.

General Aviation
That portion of aviation other than military or commercial scheduled operations. Commercial unscheduled operations, corporate flight operations, and private aviation are the most conspicuous members of this group. Most major metropolitan airports ten to have a separate "general aviation" terminal, where a chartered flight is likely to depart or arrive.

Great Circle Distance
The shortest distance between two points on a globe.

IFR
"Instrument Flight Rules" (flight in clouds).

ILS
Instrument Landing System-low level approach equipment at certain airports. Airports with ILS systems are indicated in bold face type in the airport listings. Though instrument approaches and departures can be made in airports without an ILS, its presence is a material benefit to the travel planner because an instrument landing system improves trip reliability as closely as possible to the level of scheduled airlines, which generally fly from airports with these facilities.

Independent Operator
A charter operator that does not meet the definition of FBO or commuter, but may not be involved in contract management of aircraft. The larger independent operators, however, are very close to the fleet manager in business approach.

Layover
A night spent in the middle of the trip in a city other than home base for the aircraft and crew.

Leg
Describes one direction of travel between two points. Commonly used in referring to a planned itinerary. It may not indicate all landings; such as fuel stops.

Lift
Any aircraft engaged for transport.

Medevac
Medical evacuation (usually emergency) seen in this book as a service of many helicopter companies.

Part 91
The set of federal regulations that govern private aircraft use.

Part 135
The set of federal regulations that govern the commercial hire of jets.

Positioning
Ferrying aircraft for departure from other than originating airport. (Also for return.)

Positioning Time
Time estimated for an aircraft to travel to the trip departure position.

Propjet
A propeller driven airplane, in which the engine is a jet turbine rather than piston driven.

Ramp
The apron or open "tarmac" in front of an FBO or terminal facility. This space is busy, used for deplanement, parking of aircraft, etc. Some facilities will permit automobiles to drive to the aircraft on the ramp, a feature of real benefit to the traveler with heavy or bulky luggage.

Re-Positioning
Time estimated for an aircraft to return to its based position after completion of a passenger segment.

Retail Customer
Also know as the "end user". This customer purchases charter for their own use and is assessed Federal Excise Tax (FET) and segment fees as applicable.

Segment
Describes the nit of flight between take-off and landing. Sometimes used interchangeably with the term "leg".

Stage Length
Distance of itinerary non-stop leg.

Taxi Time
That portion of the trip spent rolling between the gate, terminal, or ramp and runway.

VFR
"Visual Flight Rules" (flight out of clouds).

Waiting Time
That time that the chartered aircraft and crew must wait on the ground during any portion of the trip.

ICAO-code
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a 4-letter airport location indicator. The field above is left blank if no ICAO location indicator is available for the selected airport.

IATA-code
International Air Transport Association (IATA), a 3-letter identifier for the relevant airport. The field above is left blank if no IATA code is available for the selected airport.

Wholesale Rates
Discounted hourly rates offered to wholesale buyers for purpose of resale. Industry average is a 5% discount but the rate varies according to agreements between individual charter operators and charter brokers.

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